IEEE IEMDC 2017 Tutorials
Title: Flux modulation machines-- from Principle, Features to Topologies
Instructor: Ronghai Qu
Affiliation: Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
Abstract: This tutorial will address Flux Modulation Machines, a recent hot research topic, based on the series work of flux modulation machines and will be presented by Professor Ronghai Qu from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in China.
Recently, flux modulation machines have been with significant progress, which make them attract more and more attentions, and have become one of hottest research topics in electrical machine area for both academic and industry applications. Different from regular PM machines, flux modulation machines are with different stator and rotor pole number, and produce steady torque based on the so called flux modulation effect. The special operation principle makes flux modulation machines high-torque density and low-pulsation torque, and more design freedoms lead to many novel machine topologies for different applications. This tutorial is a summarized presentation of Flux Modulation Machines.
Continuous works on flux modulation machines have been done since 2010 by the presenter, which build up the basis for flux modulation machines. Fifteen IEEE transaction papers and fifty-three conference papers have been published for the series work by the presenter and his group from 2011 to 2016. More related papers will be published in IEEE conferences and/or journals in 2017. This presentation will summarize the principle, features and topologies of flux modulation machines as a higher level introduction of this new machine family for scholars who are interested in this novel electrical machine family.
This tutorial contains four parts including:
This part is giving machine background: limits and main features of conventional PM machine performance improvement, definition of flux modulation effect and flux modulation machines, and difference between them.
2. Operation principle, features and topologies;
Typical models including flux modulator, armature and excitation field exciter of flux-modulation machines are built. Then, the torque relationships among these three components are developed based on the principle of electromechanical energy conversion. Some structure and related features of flux-modulation machines are summarized, through which the flux-modulation topology distinguish criterion is proposed. Moreover, flux-modulation topologies are further classified into stationary flux modulator, stationary excitation field, stationary armature field and dual-mechanical port flux-modulation machines. It will also be demonstrated how to convert typical models of flux-modulation machines to many existing topologies, such as vernier, switched flux, flux reversal and transverse machines.
3. Basic theory for flux-modulation machine family;
Basic theory including winding theory, general torque and power factor expressions of the flux-modulation machines are given. Some common features are derived from these expressions. Analysis theory among different flux-modulation topologies or between flux modulation and regular PM machines are presented. Several new topologies/configurations discovered will be summarized in this tutorial as well.
4. Analyses, designs, and prototypes of Vernier machines, a flux-modulation machine family member:
Vernier machine, a member of flux modulation machine family, is introduced in detail. Structure, operation, features, and parasitic effect will be all given, and several advanced Vernier topologies and their prototypes are demonstrated in the tutorial.
Ronghai Qu is a Professor with Huazhong University of Science &Technology (HUST), Wuhan, China, Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, and Member of Academic Degrees Committee at HUST. He received the B.E.E. and M.S.E.E. degrees from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 1993 and 1996, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in 2002. In 1998, he joined the Wisconsin Electric Machines and Power Electronics Consortiums as Research Assistant. Since Jan. 2003, he had been with the General Electric (GE) Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY, as a Senior Electrical Engineer with the Electrical Machines and Drives Laboratory. In 2010, he joined Huazhong University of Science &Technology (HUST), Wuhan, China. He has authored over 200 published technical papers and is the holder of over 75 patents/patent applications. Prof. Qu has been the recipient of several awards from GE Global Research Center since 2003, including the Technical Achievement and Management Awards. He also is the recipient of the 2003 and 2005 Best Paper Awards, third prize, from the Electric Machines Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society at the 2002 and 2004 IAS Annual Meeting, respectively.
Title: Design of Special PM Machines using FEA with Insights on Flux Switching and PM-assisted Machine Types
Instructors: Nicola Bianchi, Gianmario Pellegrino, and Bulent Sarlioglu
Affiliations: University of Padova, Politecnico di Torino, and University of Wisconsin-Madison
Abstract: The objective this tutorial is to present special permanent magnet machines including flux-switching PM machine and PM assisted synchronous reluctance machines. Permanent magnet (PM) electrical machine design is one of the most important skill sets needed to stay competitive in the motors and generators industry. Permanent magnet electric machines are an energy-efficient substitute for electric motors. They offer applications in appliances, industrial, automotive, aerospace, oil and gas, and medical equipment. Two types of machines have gained special interests recently. The flux-switching PM (FSPM) machines have permanent magnets in the stator and the rotor similar to that of a switched reluctance machine. Hence, the mechanical structure of the rotor is simple. The PM-assisted synchronous reluctance machines are a class of PM machines where the permanent magnets improve the power factor of a synchronous reluctance machine to obtain more torque and a large constant power speed range. PM-assisted machines are competitive for their large constant power speed range and their steadily high efficiency distribution in the torque-speed domain. The design and optimization of the synchronous reluctance machine including the multi-layer flux barrier design, torque ripple reduction, and optimization will be discussed in the tutorial.
Overview of permanent magnet machines (Surface PM, Internal PM, and others)
Flux-switching permanent magnet machine principle of operation
Performance characterization of novel flux-switching permanent magnet machine
PM-assisted synchronous reluctance machine design
PM-assisted synchronous reluctance machine analysis and optimization.
Nicola Bianchi received the Laurea and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering at University of Padova, Padova, Italy, in 1991 and 1995, respectively. Since 2005 he is an Associate Professor in Electrical Machines, Converters and Drives. His activity is in the Electric Drive Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova. His research and teaching activities include the design of electrical machines, particularly for drive applications. He is responsible for various projects for local and foreign industries. He is author and co-author of several scientific papers on electrical machines and drives, and international books on the same subject. He is a 2014 IEEE Fellow.
Gianmario Pellegrino is Associate Professor at the Politecnico di Torino (Polytechnic University of Turin), in Italy. He received his MSc and PhD degrees in electrical engineering from the same institution. His research interests include the design of electrical machines and the control of electrical drives. He is involved in research projects with industry, having more than 30 Journal papers and one patent. Dr. Pellegrino is an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, and the co-recipient of six IEEE sponsored paper awards. He was a Visiting Fellow at the Aalborg University (DK) in 2002, at the he University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K., in 2010–2011 and at the UW Madison, Madison WI in 2013.
Bulent Sarlioglu is Professor at University of Wisconsin–Madison, and Associate Director, Wisconsin Electric Machines and Power Electronics Consortium (WEMPEC). Dr. Sarlioglu spent more than ten years at Honeywell International Inc.’s aerospace division, most recently as a staff systems engineer, earning Honeywell’s technical achievement award in 2003 and an outstanding engineer award in 2011. Dr. Sarlioglu contributed to multiple programs where high-speed electric machines and drives are used mainly for aerospace applications. One of the example was a turbo-compressor system where the turbine, compressor, and PM motor are mounted on the same shaft. The compressor and turbine are used as part of an air supply system for a Department of Energy 80-kW fuel cell system. The motor was variable speeds up to 100,000 rpm and power up to 17 kW. Dr. Sarlioglu is the inventor or co-inventor of sixteen US patents and many other international patents. His research areas are high speed electric machines, novel electric machines, and application of wide bandgap devices to power electronics to increase efficiency and power density.
Industrial and Research Track
Title: Design for Manufacturing of Permanent Magnet Assemblies and Electric Machines – Combined Theoretical and Practical Approach
Instructors: Aaron Williams and Dan M. Ionel
Affiliations: Arnold Magnetic Technologies and University of Kentucky
Abstract: The tutorial covers from an academic and industrial perspective main aspects of permanent magnet types and characteristics, optimal selection considering operating conditions including temperature and mechanical stress, manufacturability, motor topologies and combinations with different grades of laminated steel. Included are elements of recent technology, such as laminated and encapsulated magnets, magnet rotor sleeving, and product developments, especially for high speed applications. In this respect, the tutorial comprises two comparative case studies for smaller, lighter and more power dense electric motors at rated speeds of 75,000 rpm and 150,000 rpm, respectively. A second section of the tutorial is devoted to studying the effects of the manufacturing tolerances on the motor performance using a systematic Design of Experiments (DOE) and Six Sigma approach. It is shown that such computational and experimental methods, in combination with the tests recommended by recently approved IEEE 1812 Guide for Brushless PM Machines, can be used to identify out of specification issues and the causes for performance variation in machine prototypes and products. The tutorial employs examples provided by industrial practice and simulations with advanced FEA and multi-physics software.
Aaron Williams is the Engineering Manager for Arnold Magnetic Technologies. He has almost 10 years of experience in the magnetics industry working with clients in the aerospace, defense, automotive, and general industries in order to optimize the efficiency of their designs and products through use of performance materials. After graduating from the Rochester Institute of Technology, Aaron obtained his MBA through the Simon School of Business at the University of Rochester. He is an active participant in the A3 Business Forum, SAE International, Motion Control and Motors Assc. ITEC, and the Critical Materials Institute. He also teaches short courses on permanent magnet technologies and industry at the University of Wisconsin WEMPEC program.
Dan M. Ionel is Professor and L. Stanley Pigman Chair in Power at University of Kentucky. Previously, he worked in industry for more than 25 years, most recently as Chief Engineer for Regal Beloit Corp., and before that as the Chief Scientist for Vestas Wind Turbines. He contributed to technology developments with long lasting industrial impact, designed machines and drives with ratings between 0.001 and 10,000hp, published more than150 technical papers, including three winners of IEEE Best Paper Awards, and holds more than 30 patents, including a medal winner at the Geneva Invention Fair. Dr. Ionel is an IEEE Fellow, the Past Chair of the IEEE Power and Energy Society Electric Motor Subcommittee, and the Chair of the IEEE WG for 1812 Test Guide revision.
Industrial and Research Track
Title: Motoring, Generating, Simulation & Test Results for the Current BWM i3 Electric Vehicle Traction Machine
Instructors: James Hendershot and Timothy Burress
Affiliations: MotorSolver and Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL)
Abstract: This presentation presents the analysis of BWM i3 Carbon-Composite E-Car’s electric motor-generator. This unique E-car comes in two versions, one all electric and the other with a small engine/generator for range extension. The electric machine designed and produced by BMW is the latest state of development for IPM machines with a high reluctance torque to reduce the cost of the rare earth magnets. It is a 12 pole machine which is a very high number for its speed as compared to all other IPMs used in hybrid and E-car. This presentation is sort of a workshop and will show how to determine the motoring performance as well as the generated output power during braking as an increasing load causes the current to increase that causes the voltage to decrease. It will be shown how to simulate the max. output power capability of this machine, the voltage and currents as well as the output voltage drop (in %) as a function of the angle between the output voltage and the open circuit back EMF. The latest vesion of Infolytica’s template based finite element 2D field solver MotorSolve 6 with special PM Generator capabilities is used for the simulations predicted for motoring and generating performance of the i3 machine. Included are details of the construction and manufacturing process of this novel machine. Finally, simulated results are compared to the i3 test machine results performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
James Hendershot has over 40 years’ experience in practical design, development and manufacturing of PM & SR brushless machines as well as AC induction machines for inverter control. Mr. Hendershot has designed hundreds of machines for computer disc drives, machine tool spindles, traction motors, PM generators for micro-turbines and many other applications. Mr. Hendershot’s past employment includes Lear Siegler, Clifton Precision, General Motors, United Technologies, and Pacific Scientific. He has written (or co-authored) numerous technical papers, publications and three books plus 13 patents. Jim Hendershot, an IEEE Fellow, holds a BS in physics from Baldwin Wallace College in Berea, Ohio.
Tim Burress earned BS and MS degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Tennessee. His education includes a focus on power electronics, electric machinery, and control systems. In 2004, he began working in the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, where he developed comprehensive testing and analysis methods for assessing design, packaging, operational characteristics, and performance of hybrid and electric vehicle drive components. He has authored several highly recognized reports that detail broad-based benchmarking assessments of on-the-road inverter and motor technologies. In addition to leading benchmarking efforts at ORNL, he is ORNL’s Electric Machines Team Leader and his team utilizes and develops FEA software and state-space models to develop, model, and optimize electric machine designs and their control algorithms. The team fabricates novel electric machine designs and conducts comprehensive dynamometer testing to verify performance and operational efficiency.
Title: High Performance Multiphysics Design for Electrical Machines
Instructors: Marius Rosu and Mark Solveson
Affiliation: ANSYS, Inc.
Abstract: The tutorial provides with case-studies on HPC (High Performance Computing) technology which enables any user to deploy large time-domain problems. In the light of this capability the proposed technology allows designers to increase the speed of research and design by running high performance computing on various low-frequency electromagnetic applications as rotating electrical machines and power transformers. In spite of multiphysics design the tutorial emphasis will be on the comprehensive machine design methodology. Before employing sophisticated design studies, designers are provided with an integrated initial stage design environment to perform fast electromagnetic and thermal simulations to analyze various case-studies and hundreds of “what if” analyses on selected electric motor topologies.
The proposed multiphysics methodology comprises case studies on:
- Electromagnetic-thermal coupled analyses
- Magnetostrictive effects and vibro-acoustic analysis
- Permanent magnet temperature dependent demagnetization analysis
- Reduced order solution for HiL (Hardware-in-the-Loop).
Marius Rosu is Lead Product Manager for the Electromechanical Product Line at ANSYS Inc. In this capacity he is responsible for building and maintaining the portfolio roadmap driving features needed for long-term strategy. Dr. Rosu continuously evaluates new market opportunities that will enhance ANSYS Electromechanical product offering while maintaining technical leadership. Dr. Rosu has a distinguished academic background with significant professional electrical and electromagnetic engineering expertise and more than 20 years of experience.
Mark G. Solveson, Lead Application Engineer, ANSYS, Inc. Mark has more than 15 years of industry experience and 11 patents with the Research and Development Center at Eaton Corporation, where he specialized in the design and analysis of electromechanical devices. Presently at ANSYS, he specializes in simulation using electromagnetic finite-element analysis and multi-domain system software for power distribution, automotive, off-road vehicle, healthcare, aerospace and renewable energy industries.
Title: Advanced Variable Frequency Drive Controller Design, Testing, and UL1741 SA Pre-certification with Hardware in the Loop (HIL)
Instructors(s): Ivan Celanovic and Edwin Fonkwe
Affiliation: Typhoon HIL, Inc. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Abstract: In this practically oriented, in-depth, hands-on seminar, attendees will learn how to design, test, and pre-certify a 3-phase induction motor variable frequency drive (VFD) digital controller. They will learn both underlying theoretical concepts as well as hands on, apply acquired knowledge to design, implement, and test a motor drive controller during the course. They will first learn the theoretical foundation for motor controls, digital control of 3-phase inverters in DQ reference frame including space-vector modulation basics, and filter design. Then, they will implement their motor/inverter controller on a real-time ultra-high fidelity HIL platform and run the complete inverter and controller model in real-time. Scalar (V/F) and Vector (FOC, DTC) speed control techniques are examined. After the inverter is up and running they will learn how to tune the controllers, in runtime, using real-time simulation and virtual impedance analyzer in HIL. Finally, we will introduce a HIL based methodology how to test and validate the performance and robustness of the VFD controller in non-linear parameter settings (saturation) and realistic grid settings (i.e. weak and strong grid conditions) and we will introduce all the key grid code and support requirements for IEEE 1547, UL1741 SA and Rule 21, the emerging smart inverter grid code, and explain all the grid support functionality. Attendees will also learn how to pre-certify their VFD controller grid-support functionality and prepare their designs for pre-certification.
Dr. Ivan Celanovic is the Co-founder, Director and Chief Business Development Officer of Typhoon-HIL, and was a member of the team that developed both the theoretical algorithms and experimental validation of the world’s first 1us ultra-low latency Hardware-in-the Loop (HIL) real-time emulator platform for power electronics. He is responsible for technology and product development vectors, business development, and innovation. His research and development work spans ultra-high fidelity real-time emulation of power electronics systems, smart grid technologies, and applied controls. In addition, he is also working on photonic crystals, high-temperature nano-photonics, and new solid-state heat to electricity conversion systems. Dr. Celanovic has published over 80 journal publications, 5 patents, and two book chapters. He holds an Sc.D. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, an M.Sc. degree from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and a Diploma Engineer degree from the University of Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia, all in electrical engineering and computer science.
Edwin Fonkwe received his Diplôme d’Ingénieur de Conception from the Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique Yaoundé in 2009 with a specialty in Electrical Engineering. He received an MSc degree in Electrical Power Engineering at the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology in 2013, and a Master of Science (SM) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2015, where he is currently working toward his PhD. His research interests include power electronics, control, modeling and simulation. Edwin worked with Lafarge-Cimencam Douala as an Electrical Engineer between 2009 and 2011, and was involved in the design and installation of electrical systems to improve plant output, as well as personnel safety. He is currently interning with Typhoon HIL where his work includes developing high fidelity micro-grid testbed models for real time simulation.